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Monday, April 25, 2011

Special Education: A Lesson Plan for Demonstration Teaching


Name: ***

Age: 5 years and 3 months

Area/ Domain: ADL/ Gross Motor

Pre-requisite skills: Going up and down the stairs without
assistance, but with his holding the
banister (As he grows up, he will then
learn how to do so without holding the

Diagnosis: Autism Spectrum Disorder with Severe
Mental Retardation

CONTEXT: The subject is a child with Severe Mental 
Retardation connected to Autism Spectrum
Disorder. He also has delayed development-
very weak Fine and Gross Motor Skills, no
speech yet, no Cognitive and Emotional
Development yet, and no Self-help Skills
yet. Three months ago, he had no Social
Skills yet, but, currently he can already
engage in parallel play. Now, he cooperates
in activities and tries his best to perform tasks
given to him. The main focus will be ADL Skills
targeting the Gross Motor domain.



At the end of the 15-minute lesson, *** will be able to perform the following tasks with 70% accuracy:

a. Go up the stairs while holding the banister
b. Go down the stairs while holding the banister


Going up and down the stairs without assistance/ somebody holding his hand

Location: Classroom

Proximity: *** is standing at the foot of the stairway. The teacher is standing behind him, near enough to assist him when the need arises. He is facing upwards, ready to go up the stairs one step at a time; then after reaching the top-most step, he faces downwards, ready to go down the stairs one step at a time, still with teacher behind him, following him every step of the way.

Prompts: Verbal, Gesture, Positional

Reinforcements: Placing of a big toy near the top-most step of the stairway/ a colorful small pack of candies at the low-most step of the stairway, Clapping of hands after several steps done, Social praises


A big toy and a colorful pack of candies


a. Motivation

To get *** to do his task, the teacher will begin by showing him
the big toy and the small pack of candies which he will get as
prizes after completion of the said task. Then the teacher will lead
his right hand to the first step of the stairway.

b. Presentation

The teacher will place the big toy near the top-most stair and the
small pack of candies at the low-most stair step (as soon as he
starts going up). Then he will be told, “Okay, ***, you now go up
the stairs. Get the toy up there, that’s yours.” When he is at the
top, “Now, ***, go down the stairs, get these candies, they’re
yours, too.”

c. Application

With Positional Prompting, *** will go up the stairs by himself, as
well as go down.

d. Generalization

Let *** master the said skill by verbal, gesture, and positional
prompts before doing such skill, allowing him to discover how to
go up and down the stairs with more ease than ever. As time
passes by, he will slowly master this skill, until eventually he can   
already go up and down the stairs all by himself, without the use
of the banister. Since this skill is so useful at home, and outdoors,
the family members, most particularly his grandmother and his
aunt, will be advised that follow-through at home frequently
is very essential, with prompts at first, then, slowly, over time,
the number of prompts will diminish.

e. Evaluation

Let *** go up and down the stairs while holding the banister. His
initial fear of going up even the first step two months ago is totally
gone. No more trembling of knees, no more hesitation. Confidence
in doing this skill is now shown.  -- ARV

*** finally learned how to go up and down the stairs by himself: 

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